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Beer history Germany

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, beer geek and pub crawler

Samuel Taylor Coleridge, one of the fathers of English romanticism, had opinions on beer and pubs, it turns out.

I ought to have known this. Growing up in Somerset, where Coleridge lived for a few important years of his life, you get a decent dose of him, not least because every other building has a plaque saying he stayed or preached there.

Then I ended up studying him formally from the ages of 16 to 21, and wrote my undergraduate dissertation on… Er, actually, I can’t quite remember. I know I had to slog through the Biographia Literaria and every scrap of poetry, even the unfinished bits, to make what I’m sure was a very compelling argument about something or other.

The problem is, I was very much done with bloody Coleridge after all that and my interest in him and his work didn’t overlap with my fascination with beer.

That is until a couple of weeks ago when my little brother very kindly sent me a book in the post – a copy of Coleridge Among the Lakes & Mountains, a selection of the poet’s letters and journal entries, published in 1991.

As often seems to happen these days, I opened it at random and at once saw a reference to beer:

Saturday, May 11th, 10 o’clock, we left Göttingen, seven in party… We ascended a hill N.E. of Göttingen, and passed through areas surrounded by woods, the areas now closing in upon us, now opening and retiring from us, until we came to Hessen Dreisch… They were brewing at the inn – I enquired and found that they put three bushels of malt and five large handfuls of hops to the hogshead. The beer as you may suppose, but indifferent stuff.

My immediate thought was, wait, was Coleridge some sort of proto beer geek? Am I going to find beer on every other page of this book?

Well, we’ll get to that, but, first, let’s unpick the quotation above and see if we can find the place he drank at.

Coleridge wasn’t, it turns out, very good at German place names. There is nowhere called ‘Dreisch’ north east of Göttingen, although there is a Dreiech near Frankfurt. In the same entry, he mentions ‘Rudolphshausen’ and ‘Womar’s Hausen’, neither of which seem to exist either, even on older maps.

Kathleen Coburn identifies the latter as Wollbrandshausen, though, which does make sense, especially when you plot a route from Göttingen to Wollbrandshausen on Google Maps and it happens to take you through Radolfshausen.

Tracking back through the route Coleridge describes, through ‘coombes very much like those about Stowey and Holford… [with] great rocky fragments which jut out from the hills’ via ‘a lofty fir grove’, we reckon Röringen might be the place where Coleridge stopped for his mediocre lunchtime pint. But that’s a bit of a guess. And there’s no obvious old inn there.

So, further suggestions are welcome, especially from Göttingen locals, German speakers who might be able to make sense of Coleridge’s mangling of the local place names, or experts in German history.

While Coleridge was exploring, his friends William and Dorothy Wordsworth were hanging out in Goslar, which they hated. Coleridge passed through and wasn’t impressed either and, though this book doesn’t include his thoughts on Gose, it turns out he did translate a bit of German doggerel on the subject:

This Goslar Ale is stout and staunch;
But sure ‘tis brewed by Witches!
Scarce do you feel it warm in paunch,
‘Odsblood, ‘tis in your Breeches!

Just in case you’re not a trained literary analyst like wot I am, it’s suggesting that Gose makes you shit yourself.

As for the recipe, I’ve got no idea why Coleridge thinks it ought to be obvious that beer would be ‘indifferent’. Bushels of malt, handfuls of hops – is he saying it’s not hoppy enough? Too sweet?

Coleridge on British beer and pubs

The next big question: does Coleridge have lots to say about beer elsewhere? Well, no, not really. He was much more into laudanum and laughing gas, which he got from his mate Humphrey Davy.

But there are some nuggets.

In Llangynog, Wales, in July 1794, he had lunch at the village inn, enjoying ‘hashed mutton, cucumber, bread and cheese and beer, and had two pots of ale – the sum total of the expense being sixteen pence for both of us!’ Note the distinction between beer and ale, there.

In 1801, he briefly became obsessed with the idea of making productive use of acorns:

I am convinced that this is practicable simply by malting them… last week as I was turning up some ground in my garden, I found a few acorns just beginning to sprout – and I ate them. They were, as I had anticipated, perfectly sweet and fine-flavoured… I have no doubt that they would make both bread and beer, of an excellent and nutritious quality.

In the same year, he went walking around Sca Fell in Cumbria, and on 4 August stopped at a lonely alehouse at ‘Bonewood’ (Boonwood) above Gosforth where he ‘drank a pint of beer’. And that’s it – that’s the review. You might expect better tasting notes from a poet, mightn’t you? I wonder if the pub was what is now The Red Admiral.

In August 1802, he stopped at The Blacksmith’s Arms, Broughton Mills, where he ‘Dined on oatcake and cheese, with a pint of ale and two glasses of rum and water sweetened with preserved gooseberries’, which sounds pretty good.

Finally, in August 1803, he went to Gretna Green:

A public house with a gaudy daub of Hope. ‘To crown returning Hope’ – no beer! – What then? Whisky, gin and rum – cries a pale squalid girl at the door, a true offspring of whisky-gin-and-rum drinking parents.

It’s been nice to get reacquainted with Coleridge and to be reminded of the pleasure of dipping into a randomly chosen book with beer in mind.

9 replies on “Samuel Taylor Coleridge, beer geek and pub crawler”

“Dreieck” means three corners, or triangle. Could Dreisch or Dreiech be a corruption or mis-spelling? So in much the same way that English places are sometimes named after the number of roads that meet there, could there be a triangular junction near Hessen? Hmm, perhaps a bit of a stretch

I also thought “dreieck”, possibly “Haus am Drei Eck”? The local dialect might have been confounding him. Was it a day walk? As up the hill (whichever one it was, there seem to be plenty) around the woods and down to Röringen or anywhere thereabouts would (from the maps) be a decent hike: onto to Wollbrandshausen, another eight miles or so.

As for the beer, I took that to mean typical of the local style, but mediocre.

A Dreische is a word for a kind of farmland which is only planted with a crop such as rye or wheat occasionally with it being used as grassland in between…..

I guess it is the type of place name which can fall out of use – especially if it is subsequently turned into permanent arable land or even planted as a forest.

Steve

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Driesche

An interesting possibility. But just like my suggestion, it requires some corruption or mis-spelling, as the link you have appended refers to Driesche whereas STC wrote of Hessen Dreisch.

I agree Rudolphshausen is probably Radolfshausen.

One of the examples of other place names based on Driesch is Großer Dreesch – it may be the old case that vowels are flexible. Also Coleridge may have done the classic English speakers mistake of switching the ‘ei’ and ‘ie’ sounds. In German, ‘ei’ sounds more like ‘i’, and ‘ie’ like ‘e’. I still occasionally make the same mistake 🙁

Also the Wikipedia article says the various spellings for Driesch are: Driesche oder auch Driesch, Triesch, Trischer und Drieschland, im Norden auch Dreisch oder Dreesch.

So in the North, there is a Dreisch variation.

I know of a couple of places called Dreetz in the east of Germany too, but I don’t know if this is the same word.

Thanks for the detective work, chaps. I suspect we’re only going to crack this if we can find something like a guidebook from 1800 which recommends a particular route out of Goettingen, or a very detailed map of the town from the period which includes names for landmarks, fields, etc., as well as settlements. You never know, though – some local historian might stumble on this and post the answer in a year or two. It does happen.

I have only read your excerpt so can’t really scour the map, but if you think the inn may be near Röhringen, on the old map you linked, there is a inn marked a kilometer or two east in a place marked up as Södderich.

It was a guesthouse turned into a clinic for additions but appears to be closed now – local press suggests some murky business around 10 years ago involving the then owner – a Big Brother contestant and kickboxer called Wissam Nasreddine who planned it into a centre to help disadvantaged young people but it suffered a major fire which appeared to be a politically motivated arson. The insurance would not pay out as it was judged to be an insurance scam. Around this time, Nasreddine was in court for blackmailing a lottery winner for hundreds of thousands of euros using a revolver. He was given 6 years in jail.

Which all does not help answer if Coleridge visited but anyway….

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